An Affordable Solution for Binocular Eye Tracking and Calibration in Head-mounted Displays

Michael Stengel, Steve Grogorick, Martin Eisemann, Elmar Eisemann, Marcus Magnor
Proc. Multimedia 2015, page 15--24 - oct 2015
Download the publication : stengel2015acmmm.pdf [2.6Mo]  
Immersion is the ultimate goal of head-mounted displays (HMD) for Virtual Reality (VR) in order to produce a convincing user experience. Two important aspects in this context are motion sickness, often due to imprecise calibration, and the integration of a reliable eye tracking. We propose an affordable hard- and software solution for drift-free eye-tracking and user-friendly lens calibration within an HMD. The use of dichroic mirrors leads to a lean design that provides the full field-of-view (FOV) while using commodity cameras for eye tracking. Our prototype supports personalizable lens positioning to accommodate for different interocular distances. On the software side, a model-based calibration procedure adjusts the eye tracking system and gaze estimation to varying lens positions. Challenges such as partial occlusions due to the lens holders and eye lids are handled by a novel robust monocular pupil-tracking approach. We present four applications of our work: Gaze map estimation, foveated rendering for depth of field, gaze-contingent level-of-detail, and gaze control of virtual avatars.

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BibTex references

@InProceedings { SGEEM15a,
  author       = "Stengel, Michael and Grogorick, Steve  and Eisemann, Martin and Eisemann, Elmar and Magnor, Marcus",
  title        = "An Affordable Solution for Binocular Eye Tracking and Calibration in Head-mounted Displays",
  booktitle    = "Proc. Multimedia 2015",
  pages        = "15--24",
  month        = "oct",
  year         = "2015",
  organization = "{ACM}",
  note         = "Won the Best Student Paper Award",
  url          = ""

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» Michael Stengel
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» Martin Eisemann
» Elmar Eisemann
» Marcus Magnor